Straipsnis Žieminių kviečių grūdų technologinių savybių kitimas sandėliavimo metu

4. Ūkiniu atžvilgiu laikomų grūdų baltymų kiekio didėjimo tendencija nelaikytina svarbia. Po pirmųjų 90 d. laikymo sedimentacijos indeksas buvo vidutiniškai 4 ml, po 360 d. – 10–13 ml mažesnis, palyginti su buvusiu iš karto po derliaus nuėmimo. Didesni šlapiojo glitimo kiekio ir jo kokybės pokyčiai įvyko per pirmąsias 60 grūdų sandėliavimo dienų: glitimo sumažėjo vidutiniškai 1,6–1,9 proc. vieneto, o glitimo indeksas padidėjo 6–9 vienetais. Laikomų grūdų kritimo skaičius per pirmąsias 30 d. didėjo vidutiniškai 20 sekundžių, ilgesnio sandėliavimo iki 360 d. metu – po 7–9 sekundes kas 30 dienų.

5. Pagal tiesinės priklausomybės regresijos lygtis kas 100 sandėliavimo dienų azoto trąšomis netręštų kviečių veislės ‛Zentos’ grūdų sedimentacijos rodiklis sumažėjo 2, 9, tręštų pagal per 2–3 kartus paskirstytą N120–150 normą – 4,7 ml, šlapiojo glitimo kiekis sumažėjo atitinkamai 0,5 ir 0,7 proc. vieneto, glitimo indeksas padidėjo 0,10 ir 0,17 vnt., kritimo skaičius padidėjo atitinkamai 22,3 ir 27,3 sekundės. Analogiškai tręštų žieminių kviečių veislės ‛Ada’ grūdų sedimentacijos rodiklis per 100 laikymo dienų sumažėjo 2,4 ir 3,4 ml, šlapiojo glitimo kiekis sumažėjo 0,6 ir 0,8 proc. vieneto, glitimo indeksas padidėjo 2,1 ir 2,7 vieneto, kritimo skaičius padidėjo 28,8 ir 28,1 sekundės.

 

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The Variation of Technological Properties of Stored Winter Wheat Grain

  • Bibliographic Description: Jurgita Cesevičienė, Audronė Mašauskienė, „Žieminių kviečių grūdų technologinių savybių kitimas sandėliavimo metu“, @eitis (lt), 2020, t. 1 507, ISSN 2424-421X.
  • Previous Edition: Jurgita Cesevičienė, Audronė Mašauskienė, „Žieminių kviečių grūdų technologinių savybių kitimas sandėliavimo metu“, Žemdirbystė, 2009, t. 96, nr. 1, p. 154–169, ISSN 1392-3196.
  • Institutional Affiliation: Lietuvos žemdirbystės institutas.

Summary. A series of investigations was conducted during the period 2002–2005. The variation of technological properties of stored grain of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties ‛Ada’ (of Lithuanian origin) and ‛Zentos’ (of German origin) was examined. Both varieties possess good bread-making qualities. Winter wheat grain was stored in sacks in a farm storehouse. According to winter wheat nutrition conditions the grain was divided into three groups: grown without mineral nitrogen fertilization, N60 and N90 applied once in spring, and N120 and N150 applied twice or three times. Fully matured grain was stored in sacks in a farm storage house, in which air conditions were as is. Grain was sampled and analyzed after 30, 60, 90 and 360 days of storage. The findings suggest that the main differences in technological properties between the investigated varieties remained during the whole storage period. Thereby, the grain of ‛Ada’ variety had higher protein and wet gluten content, sedimentation and gluten indexes were lower and falling number higher than those of ‛Zentos’. The most evident trends of increase were obtained for falling number and decrease for sedimentation index values. During the initial 30 days of storage the falling number increased in grain by 20 seconds, and after that by 5–7 seconds every 30 days of storage; during the initial 90 storage days the sedimentation values decreased by 4 ml and after 360 days they were by 10–13 ml lower than those of freshly harvested grain. The high alterations in gluten content and quality were obtained over initial 90 storage days’ period: wet gluten content decreased by 1.6–1.9 percentage points and gluten index increased by 6–9 units. The trends of protein content increase in stored grain were inconsiderable. The trends in technological qualities of stored grain did not depend on the weather conditions during grain ripening period. Changes in technological qualities of wheat grain that had received higher nitrogen nutrition rates were more pronounced compared with those in grain that had received lower nitrogen rates or had not received any nitrogen at all.

Keywords: Triticum aestivum L., fertilization, varieties, protein, gluten, sedimentation, falling number.