Straipsnis Dvasininkija 1918–1940 metų Lietuvos Respublikos enciklopediniuose leidiniuose

Literatūra ir šaltiniai

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  • Trumpos Steigiamojo Seimo narių biografijos su atvaizdais, Klaipėda: Seimo kanceliarija, 1921.
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  • Žymesnybių žodynas, t. I | LNB RS, f. 130-1460.
  • Žymesnybių žodynas, t. II, C–J | LNB RS, f. 130-1461.
  • Žymesnybių žodynas, t. IV, N–S | LNB RS, f. 130-1462.
  • Žymesnybių žodynas, t. V, S–Ž | LNB RS, f. 130-1463.

The Clergy in the Encyclopedic Publications of the Republic of Lithuania in 1918–1940

  • Bibliographic Description: Valdas Selenis, „Dvasininkija 1918–1940 metų Lietuvos Respublikos enciklopediniuose leidiniuose“, @eitis (lt), 2017, t. 842, ISSN 2424-421X.
  • Previous Edition: Valdas Selenis, „Dvasininkija 1918–1940 metų Lietuvos Respublikos enciklopediniuose leidiniuose“, Soter, 2013, nr. 45(73), p. 39–52, ISSN 1392-7450.
  • Institutional Affiliation: Lietuvos edukologijos universitetas.

Summary. Reputational elite in this article is considered to be not only the most famous, authoritative, “the most meritorious men of the state and nation,” the most influential “famous people” (Men of Fame) in the society, awarded in prizes, medals, and other evaluational attributes, but every person who has entered the encyclopedias and “who is who” type of publications. In Western Europe from the beginning of the twentieth century biographical reference books became a “canonization” form of the most prominent national and state actors in emerging “small” nations, as well as a sign of modern nationalism in the era.

The author uses three main sources to research and separate the group of clergy from other representatives of reputational elite:

Lietuvos albumas. (The Album of Lithuania). The album of the patriarchs (cultural and art workers) of the Republic of Lithuania. It contains pictures with basic information and translation in English. Publishers expressed their willingness to present the people who more or less contributed to the Awakening of Lithuanian nation and state. Editors noted that this album was not thorough or full-scale because information about some less known people was missing, especially about the soldiers who fought in the War for Independence in 1919–1920.

Lietuvos žymesnybių žodynas. (The Dictionary of Celebrities) The first who is who type national dictionary of Lithuanian famous people. It was initiated by the Lithuanian Catholic Academy of Sciences but was never published. All material is preserved in the Lithuanian National Martynas Mažvydas Library (signature F. 130-1460, 1461, 1462, 1463).

Lietuviškoji enciklopedija. Best and only Lithuanian encyclopedia from inter-war period. The idea for it was first introduced in 1910, but it was realized only in 1931. This encyclopedia contains fragmentary and some vast and informative biographical articles. Unfortunately, because of the Soviet and Nazi occupations this encyclopedia was not finished (10th volume had only reached letter L).

The report of Inspection Commission of the preparation of Dictionary in 1924 noted that in the board meeting of the Lithuanian Catholic Academy of Sciences it was intended to include “all the then distinguished people, without any distinction of nationality, religion, political views.” It had also been said that “a concept of celebrities could be drawn narrowly, focusing on only the great writers, artists, actors and so on. But because our nation is small and has only few famous people worldwide, less famous people are major players in our nation and they deserve to be mentioned even for relatively small deeds“. The board of editors stated that “life means not one and no more than one person, but an organic whole group of workers.”

The main source of this study is national “Lithuanian Encyclopedia” which was published in 1933–1944. Most of the clergy, almost half (47 %) of biographies of reputational elite can be found in the Dictionary of Celebrities (“Žymesnybių žodynas”) which remained unpublished, it did not survive its third volume. This dictionary did not represent all the most distinguished people of any nationality, religion or political beliefs; the selection of famous people included mostly Catholics. The Clergy in reputational elite of the Republic of Lithuania in 1918–1940 constituted the largest professional-group – about 163 people out of 1073 (15.1 per cent). Most of clerics studied in St. Petersburg and Kaunas Roman Catholic seminaries, Lithuanian (Vytautas Magnus) and Fribourg (Switzerland) universities. More than half of the clergy in reputational elite consisted of senior generation. One-third of the clergy of the total research period obtained PhD academic degrees. These conclusions derived from the data which was composed of approximate biographical database based on tested fragmentary encyclopedic sources.

Keywords: clergy, reputational elite, prosopography, encyclopedias.